TrueAllele solves uninterpretable DNA in mother and daughter double homicide

    Background Readings

  1. Glossary: A glossary of terms

    Newspaper articles

    Magazine articles


    Book chapters

    Validation Papers

    Laboratory data (5)

    Casework data (3)

    Validation Studies

  2. Validation Studies: A summary and list of citations of the TrueAllele validation studies.

    Forensic Applications

    World Trade Center DNA reanalysis – 18,500 victim remains and 2,700 missing people

    The United States National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides forensic laboratories with Standard Reference Material (SRM) mixture DNA that uses TrueAllele technology as a calibration standard to assess mixture weight and genotype composition

    Using TrueAllele as a laboratory instrument to measure DNA identification information

    DNA Exonerations

  3. A complete listing of TrueAllele exonerations is found here

    Regulatory Approvals

    Standards Compliance



    Method Reports

    General Acceptance

  4. Bibliography: TrueAllele Casework is based on established methods.
  5. Citation Index: Other scientists refer to TrueAllele methods.

    TrueAllele usage in law and science

    TrueAllele method is well-suited for interpreting low-level DNA mixtures

    Relevant scientific community develops and assesses probabilistic DNA interpretation

    Forensic community accepts that probabilistic genotyping works better than thresholds

    Related Systems

    LSD (Tseiwei Wang, United States)
    Wang T, Xue N, Birdwell JD. Least-square deconvolution: a framework for interpreting short tandem repeat mixtures. J Forensic Sci. November 2006;51(6):1284-97.

    MCMC (James Curran, New Zealand)
    Curran JM. A MCMC method for resolving two person mixtures. Science & Justice. 2008;48(4): 168-177.

    MixSep (Torben Tvedebrink, Denmark)
    Tvedebrink T, Eriksen PS, Mogensen HS, Morling N. Identifying contributors of DNA mixtures by means of quantitative information of STR typing. J Comput Biol. 2012;19(7):887-902.

    STRmix (John Buckleton, New Zealand)
    Taylor D, Bright J-A, Buckleton J. The interpretation of single source and mixed DNA profiles. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2013;7(5):516–28.

    DNA Insight (Roberto Puch-Solis, England)
    Puch-Solis R, Rodgers L, Mazumder A, Pope S, Evett I, Curran J, Balding D. Evaluating forensic DNA profiles using peak heights, allowing for multiple donors, allelic dropout and stutters. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2013;7(5):555–63.

    DNAmixtures (Robert Cowell, England)
    Cowell RG, Graversen T, Lauritzen SL, Mortera J. Analysis of DNA mixtures with artefacts. Journal Royal Statistical Society, Series C Applied Statistics. 2015;64(1):1-48.

    DNA•VIEW Mixture Solution (Charles Brenner, United States)
    Brenner, C. The DNA•VIEW® Mixture Solution™. International Society for Forensic Genetics, Poster presentation. Krakow, Poland, September 2015.

    LikeLTD (David Balding, Australia)
    Balding DJ, Steele CD. likeLTD v6.1: an illustrative analysis, explanation of the model, results of validation tests and version history. University College London, June 5, 2016.

    EuroForMix (Peter Gill, Europe)
    Bleka Ø, Storvik G, Gill P. EuroForMix: An open source software based on a continuous model to evaluate STR DNA profiles from a mixture of contributors with artefacts. Forensic Sci Int Genet. March 2016;21:35-44.

    Kongoh (Keiji Tamake, Japan)
    Manabe S, Morimoto C, Hamano Y, Fujimoto S, Tamaki K. Development and validation of open-source software for DNA mixture interpretation based on a quantitative continuous model. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(11):e0188183.

    Admissibility Rulings

  6. A complete listing of TrueAllele admissibility rulings is found here

    Legal Commentary

    Some attorneys and scholars have commented on TrueAllele's objective approach, relative to subjective human review of DNA evidence.

    Scientific Development

    Other Papers